-did shakespeare mean that while it takes 2 to tango it takes 3 to : generate , to map, to play? which roles should daughter mother and father exchange through ages of loving each other: enlighten rain (valuing water), thunder (global climate adaptability) - we will asking your help to link this co-blog into missing "open systems" curricula sustainable youth need to urgently demand the 7th economy celebrates if they are to be the sustainability generation whose moral sentiments and humainsing of machine intel is to save our species from extinction- related bard references To Be or Not to Be "" life but a poor player .... what your bard's most valuable script- chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

sampler from creative youth olympiads of summer 2015 futurecapitalism.tv
fazleaded.com osun.app kobe.mba : what if one billion poorest women knew more about sustainability than every man- what if green rural womens keynesianism was needed to leap over the world's first two economies: pound and dollar applying the 3 wondries tech economies - oriental-demings better engineering, russian-america space and satellite mobilisation race, hungarian americas digital analytic age at the exponential deadline of 2040 versus 1970 moore's law 5G 4G 3G 2G 1G 0G naosaka.com maolympics.comIntegrating Moral valuation of Goals of 6 primary markets of green womens rural capitalism- and uniting joy of celebrations of cultural beauty/diversity with each other

2 local food security – design agriculture and fishery to end famine and dehydration) - starting with places left out by mercantile empire and industrial revolution -eg villages with no access to electricity grids and landlocked in huge continents
3 design safety local health service capacity to increase life expectancy starting with that of mothers and infants -and map community’s own resiliency and cooperative disaster readiness to forces of nature)
4 education – livelihoods geared firstly to restoring every community to consciously be a thriving (happy and free) space to grow up in
5 gender diversity- equality of women and men and every diversity of the human species to productive starting with the force multipliers of v2*v3*v4 (*v66v1)
6 water- design water flows for drinking sanitation and natural cooperation beyond borders – waters as the commons that multiplies peace and hope
1 design final services for the unbanked and to empower the poorest to be their own local development solution in the united race to end poverty
lMindset; my first job was with a British version of Khan Academy in 1972; when father, Norman Macrae, at The Economist saw this he changed priority of questions he asked leaders on how they were investing in youth. Spending 4000 times more on global coms tech 2030 versus 1946 would only be sustainable let alone economic if learning was core to every investment in millennials. Economistyouth.com invites you to join in reporting irreversibility's last chance to design smartest learning media humans have ever raced around
usa colleges ny state:: arizona: music everywhere; microcollege brooklyn library:: returning itzen hubs ny &:: high school experiments ny, dc &:: soros associates -ineteconomics hubs:: open society regions vienna central euro uni od soros:: berlin college of bardOSUN founding partners in asia are in bangladesh at fazle abed legacy :university of brac and worlds largest ngo partnership - includes james grant school of health, asian hub of ban-ki moon global climate adaptability scholars, international partner duke of edinburgh apprenticeships...kyrgistan american uni-asian supercities -will in all likelihood form 5g coalitions that benchmark sdg most exciting advances
Love Hong Kong -twitter moment -people whose knowhow we search: Jin-Yong Cai (may have moved to NY to continue Coalition Jim Kim- in south korea he explained ho he hoped to do more for advancing sdg generation out of hong kong than he could when he headed IFC at jim kim's world bank- christine loh graced brookings dc nov 2019 she explained how elders and youth need to slow down and clarify through dialogue what they most want: the island's future in 5g world of supercieties is better than ever if this process is done lovingly- Jeanne Lim former ceo of hanson robotics- as the un's ambassador for what can robots help humans ai about sdgs - few coders projects matter more than those with hanson coalitions...yidan ten cent- some would say the biggest personal communications internetwork spun off its foundation for education to hong kong around 2016 - see yidan prize:; kevin swire plays critical role in keeping hk and china economies going as cathay pacific endures double tragedies of last years riots and this years virus

tokyo-Could I ask everyone- do you know anything about the world economic forum hub in tokyo World Economic Forum Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Japan

ARK Mori Building, 37th Floor, 1-12-32 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6037 https://www.weforum.org/centre-for-the-fourth-industrial-revolution-japan

typical questions- their main hubs are at tokyo beijing delhi and san francisco and by default weforum geneva - could he eg help host some things out of dc where they dont appear to have representaion- for this year of g7 leaders only abe's society 5.0 and osaka track and the emperors reiwa era fit positively - so how can we keep schilars etc briefed even as their national leaders waste more time vis a vis sdgs - the ir4 hubs are also linked to 300 youth global shapers hubs- is there some sort of youth hot desk we can connect so that youth we connect know what the shapers are doing https://www.globalshapers.org/hubs those general question detail further when we come to deep interests be that health, climate adaptability, livelihood education, girls empowerment- it would be great if we could find a contact inside ir4 who was happy to continue to exchange ideas- what do you all think? while writing one other question- given emanuel's special connections with korea the new japan ambassador to seoul is very interesting because until recently he was the main g7 liason sherpa both explaining what japan had hoped the g7 would advance on sdgs etc as well as specifically bridging this year g20 saudi and previous year argentina

cambridge Can i intro you to my bullen smith cousins in case we can find a link eg

1 why schwarzman is only oxford-mit-tsinghua not cambridge too- if you use whats app lets meet there too =1 240 316 8157- if anyone interested i think a meeting in vienna or cambridge or boston or glasgow in next 7 weeks is absolutely critical to partnership timelines known to me

Paul's work connects cambridge uni

robert almost single handedly connected china uk and us at johnson mathey sector for about 30 years his daugher study computer science at wellesley-

my fathers work still inspires about 20 people in boston who understand why japan emperor awarded dad order of rising sun and how from 1964 prince charles bridged japan-europe-deming across asia with emperors family and akio morita

2 also there's got to be someone at corpus who remembers all the work in india alumni have done from manmohan singh to my grandfather sir kenneth kemp on the bullen smiths side who was mumbai chief justice for 20 years with gandhi writing up legalese of india independence - 4 generations of the family had built pharmacy kemps cornerand social justice networks out of mumbai

3 paul robert and i used to ski with head or royal society of medicine sir keith peters whose cambridge scholars open sourced the human genome - great if we could link him in
4 if you can find any soros or prodi fans urgent to reconnect them with the reporting of their purposes dad did in the economist- eg entrepreneurial revolution 1976 was translated into italian by prodi- dads dinner parties with soros led to support of gorbachev

5 any connection with keynes arts theatre great- unni already linked vienna boys choir- music is the soul of way soros is relaunching OSUN all his university partnerships- the arts theatre is connected with the only smart and green broadcasters at bbc palin- attenborough and so back to prince charles ans lord sainsbury daughter- with the passing of the cadburys only the sainsbury are left if the battle to keep the economist true to first 150 years of its end poverty across asia purpose which has been lost during its 7th quarter 1993=2018- two of the lads who accidentally lost the story now work for bloomberg and rockefeller foundation in new york- while they became famous in 1988 for dad and my work that trust was missing audit of corporate branding they got greenwashed since all the people my father mentored died early including the head of the eiu and asia rising author jim rohwer- jim was about to start an asian economist when se asia financial crisis began

i know head of bbc studios who markets attenboroughs blue planet series which viralised end plastic
on a billion youth mobiles and wants to something similar to 7 worlds one planet launched at un climate summits - this needs to linkin glasgow cop 26 - other wings of attenborough family were uk's epicentre of gandhi for decades which had been rooted in quakers/friends house like cadburys

there are almost no founders left of big western companies that began before tech of 1990- all the tech companies have been spoilt by silicon valley going the opposite way to what da surveyed in 1982- theres no tomorrows company - rising exponential economic system let alone community sustaining one when founders are exit planning not deming-purpose planning

there is zero chance of sustainability in english speaking world if we lose chinese fifth of worlds youth to virus silos or if trump is re-elected- and india in all likelihood will be decimated by virus next-pity about banham- he keynoted at risk and internal auditor summits 2000- any global market leader should challenge competitors to collaborate around the greatest risk their sector had most expertise in not externalise risk- we live in a western world where the 100 biggest organisations are mathematically the least sustainable- something is nor right with every economic guru hired to rule over big get biggerican u
fingers crossed on mitsubishi lee
some of these recollections of peoples purposes are more than 10 years old so delighted to be corrected but just throwing them out there- we need a japan group in the same time zone even if that means sone conference calling while meeting

emanuel has spent 15 years planting exchange thinktanks in japan korea vietnam china and dc- when i was at tokyo umi med school discussing future capitalism 2013 this is what the yokois said they wanted to do too - however clearly it was complicated because their fathers impact on toyota was mainly in indonesia - which i think is doing very well now but mainly because it has never been on us radar-it was where in 1983 unilever first asked for mit and my help in deigning brands to empower women- work which was coordinated out of unilever japan and the took me to 10 more asian countries without which asia would not have become my main focus

back to emanuel what that means is when hes in dc twice a week groups o20 asian students meet to try to understand if there is any sustainable joint research left in usa or whether emanuel can help the bridge what in my opinion are utterly false political divides between asians- if people dont agree with my\b dads journals on that and why he got the emperors order of rising sun for such inter-asian optimism then read ezra vogel-c all asian consciousness faiths are far more inter-related than all the darn golden rules ones empires used to border people

my understanding is if affordable health is what your nation wants the kuskabe family have been studying the 50 50 biggest health systems for inefficiencies ann can help you diagnose what change is needed- as i expect you know dad predicted in his 1984 survey we would all go way of the dodo if we didnt use tech to make affordable health tech number 1 benefit in the joint race to end poverty- i would urge tokyo to tell the olympics that it is rescheduling to 2021-we have too much health misinfo circulating to be celebrating any tv media in 2020

mostofa and christina are involved inter alia on trying to save bangladesh fashion workers futures - these look awful to me but i hope i am wrong

i believe gianni was ceo for mazda partners when we were struggling to charter global brand value chains intangibles around 2000 but has moved to health- i apologise if i have misdescribed this- he is tokyo based
makoto is linking musical celebrations with all of japans biggest celebrations- this has in the lat month become the passport to reuniting with all of soros 32 billion dollars of philanthropy- while soros gets mixed reviews- its improbable that either jim kim or sir fazle work would be where it is today without support from soros in late 1990s- soros is unusual he doesnt seem to mind total failures with his gifts as long as he was there at most urgent time for things that grew and grew- my dad and he enjoyed brainstorming over a bottle of wine in early 1980s

jeff knows my dad's (Norman Macrae) legacy as well as his final decade of contributions- knows global pharma a lot- and like me rather wishes all nations could take a year off while diaspora scots remap what smith and watt stared in 1760 at glasgow u perhaps thats what cop26 in glasgow november is for - at which time we will know if usa is to be pied pipered to hell

so dont ask me to be politically correct until true media makes a comeback - i think amy said she is investigating which of the biggest fund managers in new york is ready to tip but then i dont always succeed in translating how fast networks move around her generation

if anyone ever finds out what any of ban ki moon jack ma or mayor of tokyo want olympics impact to be on sustainability role models of youth i started studying that in 1991-sadly ayrton senna died before his foundation and duke of edinburgh who i was also working on pro bono could link in-still i understand value chains of celebrities better than anyone if they happen to be decent - eg is worth everyone helping naomi osaka beyond tenis particularly as thats the old emperors sport

all the best chris dc whats app
=1 240 316 8157

Saturday, November 21, 2015

are we of sutainability's last chance class of 2015 all agreed

In 2015 half the world is aged under 29. Sustainability crises are intergenerational (exponential) crises particularly of investment in jobs-rich education and peace. If the world of over 29s continue to design non-sustainable systems it will be the under 29s whose lives will see the destruction of nature and humanity, Four keys to transforming back to sustainability goals and open societies : real world's public spaces and open space; web world's mobile apps and 4000 fold infrastructure investments connecting ever local community to globally life-critical knowhow.

Public Spaces
Goal 11 launched by unhabitat and ban-ki moon features public spaces as integral to empowering youth to sustain cities and communities. Can we design spaces in which no youth are excluded from demanding and replicating solutions to ever mayor's priority social and sustainable challenges/ Goal 11 public spaces can be Trojan horse to all sustainability goals being fully youth empowered. (see windsor castle consultations)
Mobile Apps of sustainability
Open Spaces -celebrate valuing every persons contribution to a common and urgent challenge. Which five by one billion people cultures could most be celebrating open space co-creativity now:
*****China's billion Confucian Way
*****Latino's billion Franciscan Way
*****Africans and black peoples Mandela and King
*****Indian's Gandhian way
*****Poorest village and slums women4empowerment

ITU's open www infrastructures due to spending 4000 times more (2030 versus 1946) on being connected bottom up and in world way above zero-sum macroeconomics, Celebrates almost free accessibility to deeply diverse contexts and collaboration san frontieres

in new york and beijing we can find every experiment space we need;

the vatican wants to be included and sherry triss can make this happen

infosys nilekanis and kerala living up yo Kalam's leacy are hue opportunitoes now infia has all the invfrastructure to hackathon for the poorest

black world is very confusing to me- we could have built mandela way from south africa and kenya through ethiopia and rwanda, and king way back from the road to atlanta but agents of yunus decided to destroy every pathway's youth empowerment-  we can keep trying in usa to promote hbu as leaders of affordable public education systems and  frankly 
african needs big headed american aid to get out of the way and hopefully chinese aid accompanied by the virtual transparency of of direct cash transfer will end all the mischief of the age of aid by PR and political power games

if the scope of this challenge is agreed, find amy a visa please so we can all move forward at sustainability speed of www youth empowerment

Sunday, November 8, 2015

will rome be 13th pro-youth city to join in millennials sustainability economy

after yesterday's 14th edition of the premio sciacca - we certainly hope so

meanwhile here are some of the conversations that bubbled up between networkers at


i love your app Crazy4art

we would definitely like our youth exchanges to discuss

1 do they see any obvious places to sell this 5 euro app - eg before going to a student exchange in rome -if they succeed can they get some income

2 does your app provide fast format if students wanted to do another city - and is it only art or could students get a faststart in reviewing crazy4sustainability - we have several exchanges already scaling around such a quest but not yet the app platform making that  - examples of bottom-up community exchanges - out of a poor black college in brooklyn new york , and over in dubai, and starting next week in san diego whose catholic universities may yet turn out to be the first in usa to honor pope francis with a true implementation of instructions as a student curriculum - the brooklyn college association started because of antonio's friend and yesterdays economic winner bernardo asking amy and me to visit the dean of the college and find out what the she wanted to action network; we have since connected the dean with new york's high society who are interested in sustainable communities, changing te UN to value youth, and new yorks mobile apps community- her 700 person auditorium will be staging some of the most empowering student in community events ever scaled out of poor communities in new york

and we are connecting her with visiting antonio's bernardina health servants in bronx especially as the dean also has some active exchanges with kenya where the latest bernardina hospital is being built

3 amy and her peers specialise in all sustainability and open learning exchanges involving chinese millennials - the most humanly valuable missing market channel on earth

4 we also start discussion spaces around student apps - tell me if you would like to oin in those where the student app may also have a relation to your apps

two open learning revolutions we  mentioned yesterday which may not be fully understood in italy

already the best maths school is free and on line - www.khanacademy.org   - i am pretty sure an italian version is easy to find-but crucially seeing khan academy makes me ask why cant we have one academy for each of the 17 sustainability goals -end poverty, end hunger ....  and an 18th academy which explains how the franciscan model is best for society, sustainability and so doing good business.- the question of whether to start an open learning space like khan on his own or do it as on-demand partnership with coursera where the 2 university partners are sapienza in rome and boccono in milan remains undecided - especially as another option is the satellite channel www.yazmi.com  owned by an ethiopian neighbor of mine in DC noah samara

back in 1984 another neighbor of mine harrison owen invented how to make the most of 1000 peoples brains live,recently  he's spent 10 years nurturing this social revolution in chinese provinces- beiings official blessing to take this nationwide was observed by amy ten days ago- we are racing to translate the news of china going social wherever youth can celebrate it

sincerely chris macrae usa 1 240 316 8157

ps currently we link about 12 cities around the world with parts or all of our full sets of millennial exchanges introduced above
student pitching competitions, with apps
language empowerment training between 2 or more nationalities
direct student to student markets and friendship networks with china a crossroads to improving all  top level decision-making in cities towards sustainability and franciscan goals

we would like rome to be one of the cities with full service exchange - if that is something you can help map please say

Sunday, November 1, 2015

solution to keynes number 1 problem

The last chapter of Keynes General Theory clarifies how generations are lost wherever and whenever the compound monopoly theories of academic economists and ideologues are unsustainable. Only these people systemically design what future is intergenerationally possible out of a place

Help us search for 10 economists who will stand up for millennial segments most at risk of being locked in by failed systems to be lost generations

year 40 of research started at The Economist - curriculum Entrepreneurial Revolution 1976
queries isabella@unacknowledgedgiant.com

  1. entrepreneurialrevolution.avi

    Editors at The Economist discuss entrepreneurial revolution and why Norman Macrae supported Bangladeshi Microfinance ...

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

Below is a first draft of 20 ways you could be inviting people to join in if they really valued either hiro's or bernardos work

I am sure there is a better 20 listing and one connected to many skills or youth we already work with

please- help re-edit this

diarywise i just needed to start somewhere as something i can talk to :
central park south and CUNY black millennials this friday
windsor castle bootcamp next monday
vatican celebrations of bernardo end of next wee

2 types of reasons why its urgent:

amy has made it absolutely clear to me we need breakthrough in where her livelihood is going in november

there are all sorts of other top 10s we could linkin to same map of global youth empowerment whether they are harrison owens open space china or blum as epicenttre of coding youth competitions for humanity

but if we cant agree 20 ways to linkin 2 networks whose founders we have opportunity to know well - how are we ever going to linkin others

Akira Foundation - 10 youth exchanges of worldwide potential www.economistjapan.com
Rome and Chile POP Education inspired projects
Benchmarking partnerships energised by corporate leaders who wholly value youth as greatest innovation catalyst
ENSglobal list of twin partnerships with colleges aiming to develop Franciscan valuation of sustainable millennial. Family is the number 1 social investor. Healthy societies generate intergenerational strong economies not vice versa. Ending inequality is faith's main communal purpose. In USA, linking in lead college president by public state system
Twin partnerships between american and japanese educational institutions concerned with social innovation through youth action networks
Reference from vatican as to how to join in massive open collaboration in entrepreneurial revolution of jobs-rich education for disdvantaged . 12 month goals- global youth empowerment summit outreach to 10 most populous disadvantaged youth groups mapped by sustainability development goal 11.
Three week youth exchanges between Japan and USA with major sponsorship by Toyota
Connection with neighboring vatican located clubs - nobel peace summit (particularly next steps of mandela curriculum) and green club of rome
Sports for smiles - opportunity of tokyo olympics 2020 to connect superstars with millennials sustainability goals
Invitation to join as friend of rome olympics 2024 and launch of underground colliseum of pro-youth cultures
Culture convenience club Helping millennial development of cultures supporte by integrating multiple lifetsyle platform
Grounded theory research dialogues oriented by series of main Franciscan speeches - eg UN 2015 Congress 2015 Climate Encyclical; EU 2014;
Sponsor of the 20th year of creative children summits linkin  100 nations
Connection of Clares with the deepest women4empowerment and community health networks
Sustaining great youth entrepreneur competitions and patient venture networks across East and developing partnerships with west's greatest coding labs
Celebrating list of which Young Professional networks are are designed around POP transformational value chain challenge prioritised by Jim Kim and Pope Francis
Sponsor of the official worldwide proficiency test in Japanese language
Representative of chile government committee  on value of being linkedin to learning satellite yazmi
Royal partner in Thailand on sustainability curriculum
Special relationship with Ecuador educational leaders and2016 host of has sdg 11 -sustainable cities and communities-  got on a rising exponential?    
English language school as a social enterprise
Understanding origin of nations developed by womens and family empowerment links to continent wide social demands voiced in 1960s by eg Portuguese speaking Freire and Spanish-speaking Guttierez

Norman Macrae Foundation integrates 4 collaboration economies -search year 44 started The Economist 1972 rsvp isabella@unacnowledgedgiant.com -help develop the 20 netgen branches of www.economistuniversity.com year 44

  • Human knowhow exchanges between chinese female and worldwide millennials
  • Ending gap between certificate-based education and livelihood training
  • World social family trade app'd around replicating 30000 community franchises where value served remains mainly in locality
  • Brand and leadership partnerships valued round borderless sustainability goals and exponentials

Tools include open space , grounded theory , hoshin planning, hackathons, MOOCs and elearning satellites , systemic youth collaboration entrepreneur competitions, valuetrue exponential audits empowering way above zero-sum impacts; young professsional goodwill networks including journalists for humanity and university of stars.

Thursday, September 10, 2015

2015.8 Which educational systems encourage teachers to love change? We have found this to be one of be most difficult entrepreneurial searches in the 44 years since we started to study the satellite learning generation at The Economist on 1972. Help us map answers here.
One example is City Montessori Lucknow where Jagdish Gandhi family have nurtured the world's largest school over 60 years - 40000 students per year are now celebrated by over 1000 change loving teachers. One of the first missing curriculum addressed by Lucknow involved helping children to each others cultures before adolesence. This action learning pursuit became the only peace curriculum recognised by Unesco.
An example of a more recent curriculum is the finding that children can help coach most illiterate adults to read a newspaper in 60 days. The school didnt set out to be big- it was just that more and more parents in Lucknow wanted their children to enjoy this system. The advantage f scale has been used to host monthly competitions which Lucknow invites schools around the world to interact. For example what is the behavioural difference between the curricula of job creating and job destroying economics and public service. When the late great Kalam was President of India his web site promised to address any wonderful question voiced by chidren as India's most valuable future. Lucknow students kept him busy. The school also hosts annual summits of experts eg of worldwide chief justices who are quizzed by the year's prize-winning students.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

in 44 years of studyinbg elarninbg there is  nothinbg i have come across like the space of yazmi by noah samara

can youth be empowered to help start up yazmi's food channel  -chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk
here's a bit of live bransitorming - please add ideas for us to log up

tcan begin mainly with 20 second good news advertisements- which food model are being searched by which diaspora hub

first 20 second video - noah could say as an ethiopian i was particularly  inspired by dbanj launching the quest  to end poverty through value chains designed to sustain fartmers
yazmi is inviting diaspora ihubs to search out best jobs for growers models- starting with coffee , moringa, fish you tell us -
email yazmi

next 20 second videos
someone afrucan  on cofee
someone on moringa
someone on fish
somone african o spices

(make all 20 second videos in english with chinese subtitles)

this channel would support main world bank summit message of diaspora to world bank let us cross-check every step of value chain end to end
also whenever youth incubator formats of world bank suggest food solutions we could start merging mentors and investors

it fits with next food sectors women4empowerment is already looking for

it can unite the right sorts of  pro-youth diaspora hubs hubs around yazmi ; its synergetic with taddy blecher

it gives us something to present to usaid and world bank and first ladies as food security was intended as obama number 1 advance in development economic transparency and sustainability

it can be a trailer to noahs dream that china sees satellite-tableted education is its own best development policy around the world

it can help connect intel search for big data apps for bottom of pyramid agri entrepreneurs -eg the aim to treble cambodia's rice exports by small farmers
it can help us link in ifad which is rome based un agriculture network but as yet separated from everything else rome, peacemakers and jim kim try to celebrate

the channel can give us a fast start in dubai - while dubai may not want to grow its own foods- we can ask which sectors do we want preferential options of  disadvantaged youth

there is a natural bridge between primary school curricula in eg cameroon and rural  youth becoming interested  on how to sustain our farmers

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

june is for will energy sustain or destroy future generations

IEA june 2015 -annual report release

A major milestone in efforts to combat climate change is fast approaching. The importance of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) – to be held in Paris in December 2015 – rests not only in its specific achievements by way of new contributions, but also in the direction it sets.

What does the energy sector need from COP21?
National pledges submitted for COP21 need to form the basis for a “virtuous circle” of rising ambition. From COP21, the energy sector needs to see a projection from political leaders at the highest level of clarity of purpose and certainty of action, creating a clear expectation of global and national low-carbon development.

Four pillars can support that achievement:
 1. Peak in emissions – set the conditions which will achieve an early peak in global energy-related emissions.

2. Five-year revision – review contributions regularly, to test the scope to lift the level of ambition.

3. Lock in the vision – translate the established climate goal into a collective long-term emissions goal, with shorter-term commitments that are consistent with the longterm vision.

4. Track the transition – establish an effective process for tracking achievements in the energy sector.

 Peak in emissions The IEA proposes a bridging strategy that could deliver a peak in global energy-related emissions by 2020. A commitment to target such a near-term peak would send a clear message of political determination to stay below the 2 °C climate limit. The peak can be achieved relying solely on proven technologies and policies, without changing the economic and development prospects of any region, and is presented in a “Bridge Scenario”. The technologies and policies reflected in the Bridge Scenario are essential to secure the longterm decarbonisation of the energy sector and their near-term adoption can help keep the door to the 2 °C goal open. For countries that have submitted their INDCs, the proposed strategy identifies possible areas for over-achievement. For those that have yet to make a submission, it sets out a pragmatic baseline for ambition.

The Bridge Scenario depends upon five measures:
 Increasing energy efficiency in the industry, buildings and transport sectors.
 Progressively reducing the use of the least-efficient coal-fired power plants and banning their construction.
  Increasing investment in renewable energy technologies in the power sector from $270 billion in 2014 to $400 billion in 2030.
 Gradual phasing out of fossil-fuel subsidies to end-users by 2030.
 Reducing methane emissions in oil and gas production.

These measures have profound implications for the global energy mix, putting a brake on growth in oil and coal use within the next five years and further boosting renewables. In the Bridge Scenario, coal use peaks before 2020 and then declines while oil demand rises to 2020 and then plateaus. Total energy-related GHG emissions peak around 2020. Both the energy intensity of the global economy and the carbon intensity of power generation improve by 40% by 2030. China decouples its economic expansion from emissions growth by around 2020, much earlier than otherwise expected, mainly through improving the energy efficiency of industrial motors and the buildings sector, including through standards for appliances and lighting. In countries where emissions are already in decline today, the decoupling of economic growth and emissions is significantly accelerated; compared 14 World Energy Outlook | Special Report with recent years, the pace of this decoupling is almost 30% faster in the European Union (due to improved energy efficiency) and in the United States (where renewables contribute one-third of the achieved emissions savings in 2030). In other regions, the link between economic growth and emissions growth is weakened significantly, but the relative importance of different measures varies. India utilises energy more efficiently, helping it to reach its energy sector targets and moderate emissions growth, while the reduction of methane releases from oil and gas production and reforming fossil-fuel subsidies (while providing targeted support for the poorest) are key measures in the Middle East and Africa, and a portfolio of options helps reduce emissions in Southeast Asia. While universal access to modern energy is not achieved in the Bridge Scenario, the efforts to reduce energyrelated emissions do go hand-in-hand with delivering access to electricity to 1.7 billion people and access to clean cookstoves to 1.6 billion people by 2030.

Five-year revision A five-year cycle for the review of mitigation targets is needed to provide the opportunity for commitment to stronger climate ambition over time. The energy context in which climate goals are being set is changing rapidly as the cost and performance of many lowcarbon technologies improves and countries start to see the success of their low-carbon policies. The strategy set out in the Bridge Scenario can keep the 2 °C climate goal within reach in the near-term, but goals beyond 2025 need to be strengthened in due course. Agreeing a mechanism at COP21 that will permit reviewing the level of ambition every five years will regularly shine a light on progress, and send a clearer message to investors of the long-term commitment to the full extent of the necessary decarbonisation.

Lock in the vision Translating the 2 °C goal into subordinate targets, including a clear, collective long-term emissions goal, would provide greater ease and certainty in expressing future policy on a basis consistent with the longer term objective. Such targets would reinforce the need for the energy sector to adopt a long-term development pathway that is low carbon. Fostering the development of new technologies will be necessary in order to achieve the ultimate climate goal and, as set out in the “450 Scenario”, measures beyond those in the Bridge Scenario could allow the necessary technologies to reach maturity before they need to be widely deployed. Early support of wind and solar technologies has played a pivotal role in driving down costs and achieving their large-scale deployment. A similar approach is needed to develop and deploy technologies that safeguard the reliability of power supply as the contribution of variable renewables increases (e.g. through energy storage), deliver additional emissions reductions in the power sector and industry (e.g. carbon capture and storage) and grow the share of alternative fuel vehicles in road transport. Investment in the 450 Scenario is only a little higher than other scenarios, but is oriented more strongly towards low-carbon energy supply and energy efficiency, emphasising the need for effective means to finance such investments (particularly in countries where such financing instruments may not yet exist). There must be a strong process for tracking progress towards nationally determined mitigation goals. Evidence of tangible results will give the necessary confidence to all countries and energy sector stakeholders that everyone is acting in harmony. The related energy data systems are, in any case, essential to underpin domestic policy-making and identify those who are struggling with implementation and may need assistance. Details of the post-2020 reporting and accounting frameworks may not be settled at COP21, but the agreement should at least establish some high-level principles, including the need for rules for the measurement and reporting of emissions and the need to develop accounting rules for the different types of mitigation goals that are likely to be put forward by countries.

Tracking progress towards energy sector decarbonisation is complex and requires a broader set of measurements than are collected and monitored in many countries today. In recognition of this need, a set of appropriate high-level metrics to track energy sector decarbonisation is proposed in the report. Secure a legacy of energy change Will 2015 be the year in which decision-makers are able to establish the much-needed climate for change? The answer cannot yet be known. But to assist the process beyond the recommendations in this report, the IEA will publish timely updates of its INDC analysis, incorporating new submissions, in the lead up to COP21. It will also submit the key findings of this report for endorsement by Ministers at their biennial meeting under IEA auspices (17‑18 November 2015). Beyond COP21, the IEA will continue to assess the impact of national contributions and collective prospects as they are further developed, refined, revised and implemented, drawing on the wealth of energy data and indicators at its command. A transformation of the world’s energy system must become a uniting vision if the 2 °C climate goal is to be achieved. The challenge is stern, but a credible vision of the long-term decarbonisation of the sector is available to underpin shorter term commitments and the means to realise it can, ultimately, be collectively adopted. The world must quickly learn to live within its means if this generation is to pass it on to the next with a clear conscience.